in1. About the Journal of Interdisciplinary Academic Research
The Journal of Interdisciplinary Academic Research is an annual publication of the Academic Research Centre. The JIAR is a peer reviewed academic research journal that is published in Zimbabwe but covers scholarship from the Sub-Saharan Region and beyond. The Journal primarily targets academics and other scholars as well as all consumers of research output in both the public and private sectors. It provides a platform for accomplished as well as starting researchers, including those pursuing their Doctoral studies wanting to share their findings with an interdisciplinary audience internationally and make their mark as scholars of note.

2. House Style of the Journal of Interdisciplinary Academic Research
The Academic Research Centre particularly welcomes contributions of relevance to Zimbabwe, the Southern Africa Development Community, and the Sub-Saharan Region tackling pertinent developmental issues. Submissions taking an interdisciplinary and/or empirical approach are particularly encouraged. Submissions must be original, unpublished work that is not simultaneously being considered for publication elsewhere and should not, in general, exceed 12 000 words. Submissions of less than 3000 words may be considered for submissions of book reviews or similar articles.

Manuscripts submitted for consideration must be accompanied by details of the author’s institutional affiliation, physical address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address.
Submissions should be sent by email as a file attachment to
Manuscripts are evaluated by the editors for conformity with the JIAR’s editorial policy and for formal suitability (content, length, etc.) and are then subjected to peer review by reviewers within and outside the ARC. The review process takes a maximum of one month.

(a) Language
Please write in a simple clear, direct, and active style. The submission must therefore be in English. Use the UK English which rather uses ‘s’ spellings rather than ‘z’ spellings, e.g. recognise, nationalise.

(b) Dates
Use the following format for dates: 1 January 1999, 1995-96 (not 1995-6 or 1995-1996), the 1980s and 1990s (not 1990’s).

(a) Sections of the article
Articles and notes should be divided up into sequential sections and subsections in the following manner: THIS IS THE TITLE OF THE ARTICLE OR NOTE I THIS IS A LEVEL ONE HEADING (I, II, III etc.) (a) This is a level two heading (i) This is a level three heading (i, ii, iii etc.) (aa) This is a level four heading (aa, bb, cc etc.) Abstracts.

All article submissions must include a single paragraph abstract. Notes, comments, book reviews and Current Developments contributions do not require abstracts.

(b) Quotations
Quotations should be clearly indicated by single quotation marks, with double quotation marks used only for quotes within quotes. Where a quotation is more than about five lines long, it should be indented as a separate paragraph, with a line space above and below, and with no quotation marks or leader dots.

(c) Use of Latin words
Where Latin phrases and other non-English expressions are used, they should be italicised.

(d) Abbreviations
Abbreviations may be used provided that the name is set out in full, followed by the abbreviation in brackets, at the first usage, e.g. Council for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA) The abbreviation can then be used throughout.

(e) Use of digits
Numbers from one to nine are spelt out in words unless they refer to section or schedule numbers in statutes. Use percent not % (e.g. eight percent or 38 percent).
Case names: in italics, v (for versus) without full point – e.g. Brown v White. Usually reference to only one official Law Report is necessary.

(f) Citation
There are many different referencing styles and conventions used to encourage a clear and consistent pattern of citation. One of the best-known, but also one of the simplest styles, is the “author-date” style of citing and referencing (also known as the “Harvard style”). This referencing style must be consistent throughout the manuscript.

Citing sources within the text
You have to indicate every instance of words or ideas that you have used or referred to in the text of your paper, essay etc. This is done by using a “reference indicator” which contains certain brief publication details in round brackets. It is strongly recommended that the page number where those words or the idea appear, form part of the reference indicator. There are two ways of citing within the text:

1. If the name(s) of the author(s) that you are citing form part of the sentence, the reference indicator, i.e. the publication date of the work, and the page number(s) where the quotation or citation can be found, are enclosed in round brackets, also known as parenthetical citation, and follow the name, for example:
In her analysis of reading comprehension among primary and secondary school pupils, Pretorius (2000:33) proposes that inadequate reading skills play a significant role in the poor academic performance of many Zimbabwean scholars.

2. If the original author’s name does not form part of the sentence, the reference indicator, i.e. the surname of the author, the publication date and the page(s) where the quotation or citation can be found, are enclosed in round brackets, for example:
In an analysis of reading comprehension among primary and secondary school pupils, it was found that inadequate reading skills play a significant role in the poor academic performance of many Zimbabwean scholars (Pretorius, 2000:33).

List of references at the end of the text
The reference indicator does not give enough information for the reader to find the original work, the source, in which the idea or quotation can be found. Full details of all the sources mentioned in your work have to be listed at the end of the text. This list may be called “References” or “Works cited.” The term “Bibliography” is used when you include all works consulted, even those not actually quoted. You are not expected to list everything, only the sources that you have mentioned.
Here is an example of a reference which gives the full details of a journal article:
Pretorius, E.J. 2000. What they can’t read will hurt them: reading and academic achievement. Innovation. 21: 33-41.

Note: The page reference in the reference list gives the first and last page of the article.

How items are arranged in the reference list
The list of references is arranged alphabetically by the surname of the author. Alphabetical order makes it easy to locate the details of all the sources cited, so it is essential that the reference indicator corresponds with the first word of the reference in the alphabetical list. If a work has no identifiable author, the name of the editor or the first significant word of the title is used in the reference indicator in the body of the text.

List the entries by the same author by year of publication from the oldest to the most recent publication, “no date” entries are put at the end.
Gore, T.C. 2006.
Gore, T.C. 2010.
Gore, T.C. n.d.

Single author entries should precede any multiple-author entries
Gore, T.C. 2006.
Gore, T.C. 2010.
Gore, T.C. n.d.
Gore, T.C. & Tsuro, L.C. 1999.

Brief examples of the most common types of citation when using the author-date (also known as Harvard) method follow:

When citing books give author’s initial and name, full title (italicised), edition, year, page reference. There is no need to give place of publication and publisher.
Page numbers should not be preceded by ‘p’ or ‘pp’.

(g) Punctuation
Do not put full stops in initials or abbreviations.
Use commas on both sides of parenthetical clauses or phrases, and with commenting clauses.
Know the difference between defining clauses (no comma) and commenting clauses (commas needed):

Medical staff who often work overtime are likely to suffer from stress.
Medical staff, who often work overtime, are likely to suffer from stress.
Use commas before “and,” “or,” “but” in two-sentence sentences (when the coordinate conjunction joins two main clauses):

Half received drug treatment, but their symptoms did not resolve more quickly.
We could make an omelette, or you could go and get a takeaway.
Note that when a comma is used, both main clauses must have a subject:
The patients stopped smoking, and they felt better for it.
The patients stopped smoking and felt better for it.
Minimal hyphenation – use hyphens only for words with non-, -like, -type, and for adjectival phrases that include a preposition (one-off event, run-in trial). Not using hyphens will help you to avoid noun clusters (see Grammar below).

Quotation marks – please use double, not single, inverted commas for reported speech. Full stops and commas go inside quotation marks: She said, “We will.”
No exclamation marks, except in quotes from other sources.
Reference numbers go after commas and full stops, before semicolons and colons.
Use minimal capitalisation – Use capitals only for names and proper nouns.

(c) Grammar
Write in the active and use the first person where necessary. Try to avoid long sentences that have several embedded clauses.

Sex: avoid “he” as a general pronoun. Make the nouns (and pronouns) plural, then use “they”; if that’s not possible, use “he or she”.
Nouns and verbs should agree:
The data are; None is…
Organisations and groups of people take singular verbs:
The government is; The team has researched…
Avoid noun clusters:
“Patient in coronary care unit” rather than “coronary care unit patient.”
Watch out for “danglers” (unattached participles and misrelated clauses):
Joining the service in 1933, his first post was… (the post didn’t join the service)
Joining the service in 1933, he was first posted to… (this is correct)
We allow minimum use of abbreviations because they’re hard to read and often the same abbreviation means different things in different specialities and contexts.

(d) References
Illustrations and photographs
Please try to provide informative and relevant photographs, figures, or other illustrations when you’re submitting articles to the JIAR. If you cannot provide pictures with your article, you can suggest some for our picture editor to find.
When graphs, diagrams, or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should be supplied; in general, data given in histograms will be converted into tabular form.

Tables should be simple and should fit on one page, and they should not duplicate information in the text of the paper.